Humidity is one of the environmental parameters that affect thermal comfort. Other parameters are air temperature, airflow speed. For example, too dry air irritates the eyes and negatively affects the skin and hair condition. And because of excessively humid air – on the walls, there is mold, “cry” windows, spoils furniture, and supporting structures.
In this article, we will look at the reasons for the appearance of dampness, i.e., situations when humidity in a room is above normal. And then let’s give the most effective ways to fight it.
What is the optimal humidity rate in the room?
For well-being, the humidity level in the room should be in the area of 40% to 60%. This is the best range. On what mark to stop – each person decides for himself, based on their own feelings. Maintaining this level is easier and most effective help modern devices: to increase humidity – moisturizers; to downgrade – ventilation plants and household air dryers. Note that insufficient moisture in the air negatively affects the well-being of a person, houseplants, excessive accumulation of dust on household surfaces.
More than 70% is an excess of the humidity in the room. In this case, the room is damp and all the relevant consequences. Excess humidity affects the structure of the building (walls, ceilings, windows, etc.), furniture, appliances.
Now let’s look at the situation with an excessive amount of moisture in the room, where it comes from, and how to deal with dampness.
What are the problems due to the high humidity in the room?
High levels of moisture are ideal conditions for the growth of bacteria, mold, and fungi. All these microorganisms emit spores into the air, which causes an unpleasant smell. They also enter the respiratory system, which leads to poor health and frequent respiratory diseases. Allergic reactions often occur. And most of all, children suffer from high humidity. Although adults also experience all the consequences of dampness in the room.
Several indicators can indicate an excess of moisture:
The temperature of the waterlogged air feels different. It seems lower than it actually is – the air seems stuffy, it is difficult to breathe, there is a general feeling of dampness.
The appearance of a musty smell may indicate that a fungus and mold have begun to develop.
The appearance of condensation on the walls and window structures indicates excessive humidity in the room, which will have a horrible effect on the condition of the building as a whole.
Changes in the properties of enclosing structures (walls, ceilings, floors) – peeling of plaster, crumbling of bricks, deterioration of the properties of reinforced concrete. In the autumn-winter period, building materials accumulate moisture. With insufficient heating of the building, the moisture in the walls freezes and destroys the very structure of the building material. To avoid this, the house must be sealed, have waterproofing that will protect the walls from moisture accumulation, and a sufficient layer of insulation that can protect the walls from freezing.
In general, the level of moisture in the room must be approached comprehensively because the moisture in the room can come from external and internal sources.
Why there is high humidity in the room: the main reasons
There are many reasons why there is a high level of moisture and dampness in the room. For convenience, we will divide them into 3 groups. The first category includes all temporary reasons related, for example, to the repair of the room. As a rule, immediately after the work work, very high humidity is observed in the room. The reasons are simple: the plaster was not yet dry, the floor was filled with a leveling mixture, etc. If the repair was done on rainy days and opened the windows for ventilation – the situation worsens. The same thing happens in winter because, in the cold season, the walls dry longer.
But all these reasons are not critical. There is no point in taking any measures-just wait. If you are not satisfied with the high humidity in the room, you can put a dehumidifier. But usually, such problems are solved by themselves.
The second group includes internal sources of moisture, that is, all the reasons that regularly lead to increased humidity in the room, namely:
Condensate formed due to temperature differences. For example, as soon as it gets cold outside, the balcony windows immediately begin to “cry.”
Person. With little physical activity, he inhales approximately 1 m3 / h of air or 1.2 kg / h and loses approximately 35 g of water every hour.
Hygienic procedures (shower, bathroom, toilet). If mold and mildew appear very quickly on the bathroom walls, you need to fight it. Both of these problems will not go away by themselves. We can order the installation of a ventilation system that will remove these problems.
Drying clothes indoors.
What you need to know about the tightness of structures
The outer shells of buildings should be airtight. In this matter, there are quite many disputes that through the looseness of the outer shell of the building (seams, joints, gaps) can be guaranteed in the premises sufficient milk and exhaust ventilation. This view is fundamentally wrong. Air exchange through leaky seams in the outer walls varies depending on wind pressure and temperature fluctuations. In the leakiest buildings, in which the low wind is already significantly beginning to pass through, air exchange is insufficient in windless, mild weather periods. The air in the air through the loose seams is often insufficient. At the same time, the inflow of air through the loose seams has a serious disadvantage: if the air passes easily through the seam outside, then due to the pressure of the wind, it is possible to get into the structure of precipitation. If the airflow passes from the inside out, the warm moist air of the room is cooled, passing through the seam and going out, it no longer contains the former amount of moisture, and all excess moisture condenses in the seam, i.e., the structure is soaked through moisture.
For example, it is quite airtight already, a classic brick outer wall, covered with solid inner plaster, made without tearing. The inner plaster should also be solid – from the clean floor to the bottom of the floor. Wooden structures – such as a roof with hanging rafters, will also be airtight in the plane if a solid plastic film covers the entire surface of the insulation. The canvases of the film must be glued together carefully and reliably. Windows should also be airtight. It is necessary to organize airtight joints of the window frame with plaster of the outer wall.
Features of the building’s insulation and why it is so important
To understand the processes taking place in the wall, we first consider such a concept a dew point in construction. Determining the dew point is the temperature at which condensation falls (moisture from the air turns into water). The point with this temperature is located in a certain place (on the wall outside, somewhere in the thickness of the wall, or the wall inside). Depending on the location of the dew point (further or closer in thickness of the wall to the inner room), the wall is either dry or wet inside. The dew point (the temperature of the condensate) depends on:
- Humidity indoors;
- indoor air temperature.
For example, let’s look at these points:
- If the indoor temperature is 20 degrees and humidity indoors is 60%, then condensate will fall on any surface with a temperature below 12 degrees. If the wall’s temperature inside the room will not rise above 12 degrees Celsius, the condensate will always act on its surface. In this situation, the wall is not insulated. Without insulation, it will be wet almost all wintertime.
- If the insulation is correctly calculated according to the thermal calculation, the position of the dew point inside the insulation and the wall remains dry.
- If the wall is still insulated, but on its internal surface is condensate, then the insulation is not sufficiently thick, or it does not fit tightly and through the cracks between the wall and insulation gets air and brings with it moisture (this is the so-called – natural air flows through the looseness in the design).
Note! According to DBN B.2.6-31-2006 Thermal insulation of buildings, the temperature of the inside of the outer wall should be below the indoor air temperature by no more than 4 degrees. That will allow you to avoid condensation on the walls.
The insulation properties of windows play an important role. Optimal glazing, used for our geographical latitudes, usually has three glasses (two-camera) with two layers of low-emission (energy-saving) coating and the filling of krypton or argon, with thermal conductivity U’0.5…0.8 W/m/m2K, or R’2,0…1.25 m2C/W.
The temperature of the inner surface of the glazing should be close or equal to the temperature of the internal air. This will allow you to avoid condensation of moisture on the inner surface of the glazing.
Insufficient waterproofing and insulation can also be associated with high humidity in the basement and cellar. First of all, it is necessary to check the waterproofing layer integrity and organize a ventilator to dry the walls from the inside. But let’s talk about it in detail in another article.
How to eliminate humidity in the room: practical recommendations of Vencon experts
So what if the room is humid? Rooms such as kitchen, bathroom, toilet require installation of exhaust systems (fans, hoods). In this case, the easiest and most affordable option is to buy a fan for the air hood. It will remove excess moisture, thereby preventing the mirror from fogging, mold, etc. It is more productive than the wall hooded counterpart but is more complex. It is not difficult to understand that the prices for channel fans are understandably higher because you can install one channel fan at once on the bathroom and the bathroom. Otherwise, you will need two separate exhaust fans for these two rooms.
Exhaust fans are axial and centrifugal. The first is mounted directly into the ventilation shaft, as they are not designed to squeeze many ducts. The second is considered to be more high-pressure and can be installed in other places – for example, in the bathroom ceiling. And then, they are brought to the ventilation shaft with the help of ducts.
However, the flow of fresh air exhaust channel fan still does not solve, because during the operation of these systems, air will be pulled out of these rooms, and it should be replaced by clean air.
Note! The volume of air in the air must always be equal to the amount of exhaust air. It’s the golden rule of ventilation. If you have exhaust air, then there must be a decent.
There are several ways to organize the flow of air into the room: to open the window, to put air inflow valves, to mount a grate in the door, or to provide a hole between it and the floor (i.e., loosely adjoining it), to apply ink exhaust regenerators to heat the air.
Option with recuperators is the most comfortable because before the outside air is fed into the room, it is heated in the recovery due to the warm exhaust. This makes it possible to avoid cold drafts and save on the heating system. Options with a forehand and an inflow valve are less capital-intensive but not so comfortable in operation because they serve cold air in a warm room, especially it is unpleasant in winter.
Precision devices should be placed in cleanrooms – such as a hallway, bedroom, hall. Thus, the air will circulate throughout the apartment – to enter the “clean” rooms (bedroom, hall), stretched out of the “dirty” rooms (kitchen, toilet), which will allow replacing the air throughout the house. If the building is sufficiently airtight, the air will be rushed into the channels intended for this purpose. Thanks to the continuous movement of air, the moisture is constantly removed.
The ventilation system has two functions:
- Provide indoor air hygiene (maintain optimal air parameters by temperature, humidity, oxygen saturation, CO2 control);
- save money on heating cold in-air in winter.
In apartments for 3…5 people, the normative supply of fresh air is 90.250 m3/hour. Based on the optimal parameters of 25 m3/hour per person. In a normal case, this expense is roughly equivalent to the consumption of exhaust air from toilets (50 m)3/hour), bathrooms (75 m3/hour), kitchens (100 m3/hour).
As an option, you can recommend the next simple solution of the ventilation system – household wall air recovery. They do a great job. The advantage of the recoverers is that they can be installed on the finished repair if suddenly the ventilation is forgotten during the repair. You only need to make a hole in the wall to install the recuperator. Our specialists have all the necessary tools to do all the work in such conditions.
It is important to pay attention to the efficiency of the recovery; it should be at least 75%, i.e., the recovery can return to the room at least 75% of the heat of the outgoing air. Most of the regenerators have low energy consumption, as they are designed for small air costs of 50 to 150 m3/hour, and there is no duct system. Accordingly, there is no need to apply powerful fans. Typically, the consumption of such fans is from 6 w to 150 W. The recuperator can be a little noisy at maximum speed, but at the minimum, which is applied at night during sleep, the fan running is almost inaudible. In night mode, the recuperator gives 20 to 30 Pa on noise. It is comparable to the whisper or rustle of pages. Also, pay attention to the possibilities of an automatic household recuperator, as the breadth of its capabilities will ensure the convenience of using this equipment. The recuperator can be equipped with such sensors: atmospheric pressure sensor, humidity sensor, air quality sensor, carbon dioxide sensor, temperature sensors, filter pollution indicator, performance indicator, efficiency indicator. The presence of these sensors will ensure the automatic operation of the device with minimal human participation.
We can not ignore such a room as an unheated balcony. There are a few recommendations to eliminate dampness:
- Open windows for airing;
- put a compact heating device, such as a heating convector;
- install a small recuperator to carry out air exchange while maintaining heat.
For rooms with high humidity, where the ventilation system is not suitable due to the necessary large volumes of air, you can use household air dryers. The principle of their work is based on the recycling of air in the room with its constant drainage. In such rooms as basement, cellar, attic, room for drying laundry, or suddenly, it is better to apply a household dryer if you flooded neighbors. Its work aims not to maintain the microclimate indoors but to extract excess moisture from the surrounding air and objects. Mobile dryers are compact in size, are portable. You can apply it in the room where, at the moment, you need to remove excess moisture, dry the wall or linen in the wash. The dryers can work in rooms with a temperature regime of between 5 degrees Celsius and 32 degrees Celsius.
Also, drainage can perform air conditioning, but it is due to necessity rather than comfort. In summer mode, the air conditioner extracts moisture from the air, hypothermia it. In winter mode, the air conditioner overheats the air, increasing its ability to retain moisture and prevent it from settling on fencing structures. Again, the air conditioner works in a recycling mode and only partially provides a range of necessary parameters for the microclimate – humidity and temperature. As for the air conditioning and ventilation function, at the moment, there is no adequate device with such a function, which really works, and not for the tick. Oxygen saturation and CO2 control are not part of the air conditioning function.
Increased humidity in the room is not a problem!
Well, now you know how to deal with the humidity in the room. First of all, determine which group your problem belongs to. If to the first – just wait; if to the second – then choose the appropriate solution. And if the third – first eliminate the cause, not its symptoms. For example, if you have a task to drain the air in the room, you can buy a heating convector or air conditioning. If it is a bathroom – then exhaust wall or channel fan. In addition to choosing the climate technology itself, you need to ensure its quality installation. We have reliable specialists who install and exhaust fans and radiators of heating and air conditioners in Kyiv. We also provide a guarantee for the work done.