Many mistakenly believe that water from the well is suitable for consumption, including – for drinking. Unfortunately, this is not the case. Today we will tell why the water from the well should be filtered and which cleaning system to choose.
A person is 80% water, so it has such a strong impact on our health. The use of highly mineralized water, water with high sodium chloride, or low pH levels can negatively affect. The large (or, conversely, too low) magnesium concentration, calcium, zinc, iron in the water used for drinking reduces immunity, and bacterial or viral infection of this life-giving liquid can cause allergic or infectious diseases (e.g., cholera, dysentery). Poor water spoils household appliances (kettles, washing machines, and dishwashers), leads to clogging of pipes, the appearance of rusty leaks. In short, the quality of our lives depends on the state of water.
Water Quality From Wells
Do you know what water is extracted from wells? In most cases, it does not meet regulatory requirements. Here are just a few of its characteristics:
Increased concentration of iron.
IN case exceeding the norm, the water becomes dark, muddy, leaves stains on plumbing and clothing, has an unpleasant taste. In the water from the well, iron is in dissolved form, so at first, the water seems clean. However, when exposed to air, the iron begins to oxidize, and the water becomes orange.
The presence of hydrogen sulfide.
The main indicator of its presence is the smell of rotten eggs. It is impossible to drink such water, as hydrogen sulfide can be toxic. In everyday life, it is also dangerous because it causes the corrosion of metals.
According to Sangin, drinking water’s total mineralization (or salt content) should not exceed 1000 mg/l. If this figure is higher, the liquid becomes brackish. It is especially not recommended to drink such water for high blood pressure, as it may contain many sodium ions.
Exceeding the stricting standard.
The degree of water stiffness determines the total concentration of calcium and magnesium ions. It should be no more than 7.0 mg-eq./l. Too hard water causes the appearance of scum on electrical heating appliances (kettles, boilers, washing machines, and dishwashers) and can lead to their breakdown. For humans, high-hard water is dangerous because it can cause bile and urinary stone diseases.
Increased nitrate content harms the cardiovascular system. To a large extent, these compounds are dangerous for infants because they cause oxygen starvation. The nitrate content rate is 45 mg/l (for babies – 10 mg/l).
The presence of organic and mechanical impurities.
Often in the water from the well contains and organic compounds, including synthetic (remnants of fertilizers, detergents). They are dangerous to human health, in particular – can cause serious damage to the endocrine system.
The presence of bacteria and viruses.
According to the rules, SanPin should be absent from drinking water. Neither lamblia, nor coliphages, nor coliform bacteria are unacceptable. Contamination of water from the well can occur during drilling or other work.
Water treatment stages
In the process of water purification, several stages are released.
- First, a chemical analysis of water is carried out, revealing harmful substances, impurities, or dangerous concentrations of elements. The study also identifies hydrogen, water mineralization, rigidity, and organoleptic characteristics.
- Then a “rough” water treatment from the well is carried out. This pre-cleaning helps to remove mechanical components (sand, scale, and other particles). If they are not removed immediately, they can cause filters to break.
- In the third stage, iron, hydrogen sulfide, manganese, ammonia are removed from the water.
- After that, the water should be softened a little. To do this, by ion exchange, water is cleaned of magnesium and calcium salts. At the same stage, the water is cleared of heavy metals.
- To improve the taste, smell, color of water, “thin” cleaning of small mechanical and organic impurities. Water conditioning is made.
- Finally, the final stage is the decontamination of water, which increases its microbiological safety—the destruction of viruses and bacteria.
Well water treatment systems: choosing the best solution
The choice of the cleaning system depends, first of all, on the composition of the water, seasonal use of water pipes, and consumption standards. In addition, different filters may be required at different stages of cleaning, each performing a specific task. That’s why a good cleaning system consists of several elements to solve typical problems:
Reverse osmosis filters
Remove the increased salt content, and are used to remove iron, nitrates. In the process of cleaning, the water under pressure passes through a semi-permeable membrane, which traps various impurities and harmful substances, and the purified water passes.
Used to remove stiff salts by ion exchange. Water passes through ion exchange resin, which replaces potassium and magnesium ions with sodium ions. When the resin is depleted, the filter goes into regeneration mode.
Sometimes softeners are also used to remove dissolved iron without oxidation, but a more effective way for this purpose is to use dehydrators.
The principle of iron removal in such elements is based on filter filling, which catalyzes oxidative reactions. When water passes through the filling, iron, and manganese oxidize, fall into sediment and linger. The painkillers can work both manually and automatically.
Also, extremely effective and electrochemical non-reactive dehydrators, working on the principle of electrolysis.
Help to remove mechanical impurities, organic compounds, chlorine, hydrogen sulfide. This makes the water clear and tastes good. The filtering environment in coal filters is activated charcoal, which has a high sorbational ability.
The main task of such filters is to destroy bacteria and other microorganisms. The decontamination effect is achieved through photochemical reactions, which destroy DNA, RNA, and cell membranes of viruses and bacteria. This is usually the last step in filtering.
If you choose water purification filters for a house, cottage, or cottage, it is recommended to purchase softeners and dehydrators. But ideally, it is better to install a complete water treatment system that includes all kinds of filters listed above.